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Phrase Detectives - The AnaWiki annotation game

Phrase Detectives - The AnaWiki annotation game

In this task you have to answer the question: Does the phrase highlighted in orange refer to an entity (person or other object) that has been mentioned before in this text?



Name The Culprit tasks

In this task you have to answer the question: Does the phrase highlighted in orange refer to an entity (person or other object) that has been mentioned before in this text? If you think so, you should use your mouse to select the closest phrase(s) referring to that object. But note that some phrases do not refer at all, and some do not refer to persons/objects, but to properties of these entities; you should mark those interpretations as explained below if that's the case. In the this part of the game you are asked to make a decision about a phrase highlighted in orange. The phrase can either be:

1. Not mentioned before
This is the case when the phrase introduces in the text a new entity (person, object) not mentioned before. Read through the text for an earlier mention of the same entity. If you can't see one then the phrase should be classified as 'not mentioned before'. For example, suppose you're seeing the first sentence of a text, "Sherlink Holmes went to the shop", and the phrase "Sherlink Holmes" is highlighted in orange. Because this is the first sentence, you will not have seen any previous mention of the person "Sherlink Holmes", so you should click on 'Not mentioned before'.

2. Mentioned before
If, however, you think that the phrase refers to an entity that has been mentioned before, then you should use your mouse to select the most recent mention, and then click 'Done'. For instance, if you're now seeing a bit more of the story in the previous example:

Sherlink Holmes went to the shop. It was closed.

and the phrase "it" is highlighted in orange, and you think that "it" refers to the same object as the earlier phrase "the shop", you should click on "the shop" to select it, and then click on 'Done'.

Note that the same entity may be mentioned several times. For instance, if the story above continues with:

Sherlink Holmes went to the shop. It was closed. It had a sign saying "Back in five minutes".

and this time the game asks you to interpret the second "it," there will be two earlier mentions of the shop to choose from, "the shop" and the first "It". In these cases, you should select the mention that is closest to the highlighted phrase (i.e., the first "It" in this case).

Note also that many phrases refer to more abstract 'entities' than persons or physical objects. For instance, in the following example:

Sherlink Holmes went to a party. It started at 6pm and went on for hours.

the phrase "it" refers to the party, which is an event rather than a concrete object.

You should be aware that the most recent mention of a person or an object may be `nested' inside another phrase. Suppose you are seeing the following story:

Sherlink Holmes' favourite shop is Harrods. Yesterday he went there to buy some marmite, but it was closed.

In this text the phrase "Sherlink Holmes" is nested inside the phrase "Sherlink Holmes' favourite shop". Now suppose that "he" is highlighted in orange. If you click on the phrase "Sherlink Holmes," you'll see a pop-up menu appear, allowing you to choose between "Sherlink Holmes" and the phrase "Sherlink Holmes' favourite shop". Again, you should choose the appropriate phrase by clicking on it.

Finally, in some cases a (typically, plural) phrase refers to a set of objects that have been introduced separately. Consider for instance the following example:

Sherlink Holmes met the Queen. They chatted for an hour.

And suppose that the phrase "they" is highlighted in orange. This phrase refers to both Sherlink Holmes and the Queen. In such cases, you should select two phrases: "Sherlink Holmes" and "the Queen" before clicking 'Done'.

More examples will be discussed below.

3. Non-referring
Some phrases do not refer to anything, and are therefore called non-referring.

An example is the phrase "it" in "It Rains!". "It" has no semantic content; it's there just because in English sentences have to have a subject. Another example would be "There are lots of children here!" Again, the phrase "There" has no semantic content, and the sentence could be rewritten as "Lots of children are here!". Only the words "it" and "there" can be non-referring in this way, so watch out for them!

4. A property
Some phrases are not used to refer to an entity, but to provide additional information about an entity referred to by another noun phrase. For example, in the sentence "Jon, the postman, delivered the letter" the phrase "the postman" is not used to specify a property of Jon (his profession) rather than to indicate an object. (Contrast the use of the very same phrase in the sentence "The postman delivered the letter", where it is used to refer to a person.)

Other examples of phrases used to specify a property (type) of an entity rather than a separate entity include:
"a man" in "George is a man"
"a lecturer" in "Jon was hired as a lecturer"
"their castle" in "Many people think of their house as their castle"

Examples of phrases that are NOT used to specify a property of other entities include:

"a cat" in "Jon has a cat". Note that here we are talking about two different entities.

"a bad hip" in "Massimo has a bad hip" (in which "a bad hip" is a part of Massimo but doesn't specify what type of individual Massimo is)

Other tips

Remember: When an entity is mentioned more than once, always try to select the mention of that entity that is closest in terms of the text distance to the mention that is highlighted.

The phrases were extracted from the text automatically, so unfortunately every now and you will find errors. If you think there is something wrong about the phrase please use the comments box underneath the main buttons to let us know what you think the problem is, and then use the 'Skip - error in the text' button. (Note that you can still submit your decision after leaving a comment.) If the problem is that you can see the mention in the text, but can't select it for some reason, please use the 'Skip - closest phrase can't be selected' button instead.

If you really have no idea what a phrase means please do not guess, just skip to the next one (using the 'Skip' button) - you're going to get some points anyway and it's more useful for us to know that a phrase may be difficult to interpret rather than seeing a wild guess. On the other end if you think you know but you're not sure do give us your opinion by marking the preferred interpretation - you can always use the comment box to tell us why you're unsure.

Some of the phrases you are looking for could be as many as 5 sentences before the highlighted phrase, and if you are playing the game in 'all phrases' mode, the most recent mention of an entity may have disappeared from the top of the screen when that entity is mentioned again. In that case please let us know by using the button 'Skip - closest phrase is no longer visible'.



Additional hints are shown on the right hand side of the screen.

1. Not mentioned before


and went to in a black taxi cab.


The phrase in orange has not been mentioned before so click:

2. Mentioned before


and went to . It was closed.


Use your mouse to hover over the text and choose a phrase that the orange phrase refers to. In this case you should select "the shop".

and went to . They were hungry.


In this case you should select "Holmes" and "Watson".

" is for " he said.


In this case you should select "me".

coat was torn but kept the villian dry.


In this case you should select "His".

was torn but liked it.


In this case you should select "His coat".

Once you have selected your phrase(s) click:

3. Non-referring


and went to . It was raining.


The phrase orange does not refer to anything and should be marked as non-referring:

4. Property of another phrase


is the greatest detective thought Watson.

The phrase in orange is a property of the phrase "Holmes", in this case his occupation.

will be the President of the United States.

The phrase in orange is a property of the phrase "Barack Obama", in this case his position.

was a CIA led project to monitor Russian spys.

The phrase in orange is a property of the phrase "Acoustic Kitty", in this case what it was.

Select the phrase the property refers to, check the property checkbox and click "Done":



Another detective has made a decision about a phrase: that it refers to an object mentioned before, or to an object that has not been mentioned before, or that it is a property, or that it does not refer to anything. Do you agree with them?



Detectives Conference tasks

In the Detectives Conference you are given a decision made by another detective and you must either agree or disagree with it.

In this task, you will be awarded AGREEMENT POINTS depending on how many other detectives agree with your decision. Notice that because many players see each phrase, most points in the game are awarded with this task, so it's important that you think carefully - if you choose an interpretation that other people have chosen as well you can get seven, eight points or more.

If you disagree with the decision you will be asked to enter what you think is the correct decision.

The following are examples of incorrect decisions made by other detectives. You should disagree with their decision and correct it.


Sherlink Holmes went to the shop. He got some tobacco for his pipe.

Notice that the phrase in orange cannot refer to the phrase in blue, because the phrase "He" (a masculine pronoun) can only refer to an entity with masculine gender.
Watson went to the shop. He got some tobacco for his pipe.

The phrase in green does not refer to a property of the phrase in blue.
Holmes was a great detective.

The phrase in green is not a property; it refers to a person, Holmes.
The door was solid but it was unlocked.

The phrase in yellow is not non-referring, it refers to "the door" in the earlier part of the text.

Examples that are correct decisions

The following are examples of correct decisons made by other detectives. You should agree with them for maximum points.


Sherlink Holmes had a hunch that he was right.

The word in orange has not been mentioned before.
Sherlink Holmes went to the shop. He got some tobacco for his pipe.

The word in orange refers to the phrase in blue.
Holmes said he was hungry so he went to the shop.

The phrase in blue is the closest correct phrase to the phrase in orange.
Holmes and Watson thought they should go home.

The phrases in blue is the closest correct phrases to the phrase in orange.
There was no evidence of foul play.

The phrase in yellow does not refer to anything so is non-referring.
Sherlink Holmes is the World Famous Detective who always gets his man.

The phrase in green is a property of the phrase in blue.



 
 
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